Yet Catalan nationalism was different from that of the Basque Country, where commitment to independence was the ultimate goal. During the early decades of the 20th century, the Lliga Regionalista (Regionalist League) was the dominant Catalan political force. It was a political movement that sought Catalan leadership in Spain rather than the break-up of the country. Both Catalonia and northern Italy saw themselves as modernising forces against the indolent, bureaucratic and often corrupt capitals of Madrid and Rome. Both regions also saw themselves as representing a political and cultural vanguard against illiteracy, landlordism and backwardness. Existing northern Italian and Catalan senses of superiority towards their respective southern brethren have their roots here. There is, however, one key difference: unlike northern Italy, Catalonia possesses a distinctive language and cultural identity.